Evolution was an idea which had been around long before .
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829), for example, had suggested
that giraffes got their long necks by stretching and could somehow
pass this 'slightly more stretched' character on to their offspring.
But Darwin realised that true evolution occurred by natural selection
The fittest and best-adapted flourished and produced lots more
of themselves. The rest died out. If most
of the world was like the Antarctic, penguins would be the commonest
creatures (I wish!) and people, who don't like the cold, would
not exist at all. We penguins are supremely adapted to live successfully
in bitterly cold oceans and on ice.
If the world suddenly got hot (as is happening
as humans cause climate change), penguins would be in serious
trouble. Species evolve by random changes whose cause Darwin didn't
- mutations). Perhaps in a hot world, some penguins would change
sufficiently to find warm water agreeable. But most of us would